2023 Theses Doctoral

# Queues, Planes and Games: Algorithms for Scheduling Passengers, and Decision Making in Stackelberg Games

In this dissertation, I present three theoretical results with real-world applications related to scheduling and distributionally-robust games, important fields in discrete optimization, and computer science.

The first chapter provides simple, technology-free interventions to manage elevator queues in high-rise buildings when passenger demand far exceeds the capacity of the elevator system. The problem was motivated by the need to manage passengers safely in light of reduced elevator capacities during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use mathematical modeling, epidemiological expertise, and simulation to design and evaluate our algorithmic solutions. The key idea is to explicitly or implicitly group passengers that are going to the same floor into the same elevator as much as possible, substantiated theoretically using a technique from queuing theory known as stability analysis. This chapter is joint work with Charles Branas, Adam Elmachtoub, Clifford Stein, and Yeqing Zhou, directly in collaboration with the New York City Mayor’s Office of the Chief Technology Officer and the Department of Citywide Administrative Services.

The second chapter proposes new algorithms for recomputing passenger itineraries for airlines during major disruptions when carefully planned schedules are thrown into disarray. An airline network is a massive temporal graph, often with tight regulatory and operational constraints. When disruptions propagate through an airline network, the objective is to \textit{recover} within a given time frame from a disruption, meaning we replan schedules affected by the disruption such that the new schedules have to match the originally planned schedules after the time frame. We aim to solve the large-scale airline recovery problem with quick, user-independent, consistent, and near-optimal algorithms. We provide new algorithms to solve the passenger recovery problem, given recovered flight and crew solutions. We build a preprocessing step and construct an Integer Program as well as a network-based approach based on solving multiple-label shortest path problems. Experiments show the tractability of our proposed algorithms on airline data sets with heavy flight disruptions. This chapter is joint work with Clifford Stein, stemming from an internship and collaboration with the Machine Learning team (Artificial Intelligence organization) of GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York.

The third chapter is about computing distributionally-robust strategies for a popular game theory model called Stackelberg games, where one player, called the leader, is able to commit to a strategy first, assuming the other player(s), called follower(s) would best respond to the strategy. In many of the real-world applications of Stackelberg games, parameters such as payoffs of the follower(s) are not known with certainty. Distributionally-robust optimization allows a distribution over possible model parameters, where this distribution comes from a set of possible distributions. The goal for the leader is to maximize their expected utility with respect to the worst-case distribution from the set. We initiate the study of distributionally-robust models for Stackelberg games, show that a distributionally-robust Stackelberg equilibrium always exists across a wide array of uncertainty models, and provide tractable algorithms for some general settings with experimental results. This chapter is joint work with Christian Kroer.

## Subjects

## Files

- Ananthanarayanan_columbia_0054D_17585.pdf application/pdf 1.8 MB Download File

## More About This Work

- Academic Units
- Industrial Engineering and Operations Research
- Thesis Advisors
- Stein, Clifford S.
- Degree
- Ph.D., Columbia University
- Published Here
- November 23, 2022