Effect of local anesthetics on viability and differentiation of various adult stem/progenitor cells

Kim, Young H.; Park, Ga Y.; Rabinovitch, Nechama; Tarafder, Solaiman; Lee, Chang H.

Local anesthetics (LAs) are widely used to control pain during various clinical treatments. One of the side effects of LAs, cytotoxicity, has been investigated in various cells including stem/progenitor cells. However, our understanding of the effects of LAs on the differentiation capacity of stem/progenitor cells still remains limited. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple LAs on viability and multi-lineage differentiation of stem/progenitor cells that originated from various adult tissues.

Multiple types of stem/progenitor cells, including bone marrow mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs), dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs), and tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells, were either obtained from a commercial provider or isolated from adult human donors. Lidocaine (LD) and bupivacaine (BP) at various doses (1×, 0.75×, 0.5×, and 0.25× of each physiological dose) were applied to the different stem/progenitor cells for an hour, followed by induction of fibrogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. Live/dead and MTT assays were performed at 24 h after the LD or BP treatment. At 2 weeks, qRT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the gene expressions associated with differentiation. After 4 weeks, multiple biochemical staining was performed to evaluate matrix deposition.

At 24 h after LD or BP treatment, 1× and 0.75× physiological doses of LD and BP showed significant cytotoxicity in all the tested adult stem/progenitor cells. At 0.5×, BP resulted in higher viability than the same dose LD, with variance between cell types. Overall, the gene expressions associated with fibrogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation were attenuated in LD or BP pre-treated stem/progenitor cells, with notable dose-effect and dependence on types. In contrast, certain doses of LD and/or BP were found to increase specific gene expression, depending on the cell types.

Our data suggest that LAs such as LD and BP affect not only the viability but also the differentiation capacity of adult stem/progenitor cells from various anatomical sites. This study sheds light on stem cell applications for tissue regeneration in which isolation and transplantation of stem cells frequently involve LA administration.


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Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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Published Here
December 20, 2022


Local anesthetics, Lidocaine, Bupivacaine, Stem cells, Regenerative medicine