Repurposing the Ladder: Liberty, Choice, and Autonomy as Applied to India’s COVID-19 Vaccination Drive

Bhatt, Rohin; Subrahmanyam, Vishnu

In 2007, the Nuffield Council of Bioethics introduced the “Intervention ladder” as a guiding framework to evaluate the impact on individual liberty of various public health measures. One criticism of the ladder is that it reflects a narrow view of liberty, yet other researchers adapted the intervention ladder to incorporate a more autonomy-based view. Recently, academics and public health officials have used intervention ladders as guides in framing policies, particularly COVID-19 pandemic policies. Analyzing the Indian COVID-19 vaccination drive under these two ladders can illuminate the concepts of liberty underlying those ladders and help determine the best framework on a philosophical basis.


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Voices in Bioethics

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Published Here
August 29, 2022


Autonomy, Public Health, Public Health Ethics, Liberty, Policy, Harm Principle