Evaluation of the Hindi version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy among pregnant and postnatal women in urban India

Das, Sushmita; Hall, Jennifer; Barrett, Geraldine; Osrin, David; Kapadia, Shaili; Jayaraman, Anuja

Valid and reliable measures such as London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) are imperative for understanding fertility-related behaviors and estimating unintended pregnancy. The aim of this study was to validate the LMUP in the Hindi language for a wider reach in India.

An interviewer administered version of the LMUP was translated and pretested in Hindi. The LMUP was field tested with married women in the reproductive age group across forty informal settlements in Mumbai in the post intervention census of a cluster randomized control trial to improve the health of women and children. Analyses involved the full sample and sub-groups according to time-from-conception. Reliability (internal consistency) was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, inter-item correlations, and item-rest correlations. Construct validity was assessed by hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis.

4991 women were included in the study (1180 were pregnant, 2126 in their first- and 1685 in their second postnatal year). LMUP item completion rates were 100 % and the full range of LMUP scores was captured. Reliability: the scale was internally consistent (Cronbach’s α = 0.84), inter-item correlations were positive, and item-rest correlations were above 0.2 for all items except item six (0.07). Construct validity: hypotheses were met, and confirmatory factor analysis showed that a one-factor model was a good fit for the data, confirming unidimensional measurement. The sub-group analysis (by pregnant, first-, and second postnatal year) showed that the psychometric properties of the LMUP were similar across the groups. In terms of LMUP scores, the women in the postnatal groups were very slightly, but significantly, more likely to have an LMUP score of 10 + compared to pregnant women; the difference between the first and second postnatal year was not significant.

The Hindi LMUP is valid and reliable measure of pregnancy intention that may be used in India.

Trial Registration
This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN56183183, and Clinical Trials Registry of India, number CTRI/2012/09/003004.

Geographic Areas


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Also Published In

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

More About This Work

Published Here
September 22, 2023


Pregnancy intention, Psychometric, Validation, India, Measure, Unplanned