Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin
Gas hydrate resource assessments that indicate enormous global volumes of gas present within hydrate accumulations have been one of the primary driving forces behind the growing interest in gas hydrates. Gas hydrate volumetric estimates in recent years have focused on documenting the geologic parameters in the “gas hydrate petroleum system” that control the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature. The primary goals of this report are to review our present understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the offshore of India and to document the application of the petroleum system approach to the study of gas hydrates.
National Gas Hydrate Program of India executed the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) in 2006 in four areas located on the eastern and western margins of the Indian Peninsula and in the Andaman Sea. These areas have experienced very different tectonic and depositional histories. The peninsular margins are passive continental margins resulting from a series of rifting episodes during the breakup and dispersion of Gondwanaland to form the present Indian Ocean. The Andaman Sea is bounded on its western side by a convergent margin where the Indian plate lithosphere is being subducted beneath Southeast Asia.
NGHP-01 drilled, logged, and/or cored 15 sites (31 holes) in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, 4 sites (5 holes) in the Mahanadi Basin, 1 site (2 holes) in the Andaman Sea, and 1 site (1 hole) in the Kerala-Konkan Basin. Holes were drilled using standard drilling methods for the purpose of logging-while-drilling and dedicated wireline logging; as well as through the use of a variety of standard coring systems and specialized pressure coring systems.
NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala-Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.
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- Marine and Petroleum Geology