Predictors of Change in Functional Outcome at six months and twelve months after Severe Injury: A Retrospective Cohort Study
There is increasing focus on long-term survival, function and quality-of-life for trauma patients. There are few studies tracking longitudinal changes in functional outcome over time. The goal of our study was to compare the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) at 6 months and 12 months in blunt trauma survivors with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of more than 15.
Using the Singapore National Trauma Registry 2011–2013, patients with 6-month GOSE and 12-month GOSE scores were analysed. Patients were grouped into three categories—those with the same score at 6 months and 12 months, an improvement in score, and a worse score at 12 months. Ordinal regression was used to identify risk factors for improved score. Patients with missing scores at either 6 months or 12 months were excluded.
We identified 478 patients: 174 had an improvement in score, 233 stayed the same, and 71 had worse scores at 12 months compared to 6 months. On univariate ordinal regression, the following variables were associated with same or better function at 12-months compared to 6-months: male gender, being employed pre-injury, thoracic Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 3 or more, anatomical polytrauma (AIS of 3 or more in 2 or more body regions), and road traffic injury mechanism. Older age, low fall, increasing Charlson comorbidity scores, new injury severity score, and head and neck AIS of 3 or more were associated with worse function at 12 months compared to 6 months. ISS and revised trauma score were not significant predictors on univariate or multivariable analysis.
On multivariable ordinal regression, motor vehicle mechanism (OR 2.78, 1.51–5.12, p = 0.001) was associated with improved function, while male gender (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02–1.82, p = 0.039) predicted improved function at 12 months.
Females experience worse functional outcomes at 12 months, potentially due to majority of female injuries being low falls in the elderly. In contrast, motor vehicle injury patients had better functional outcomes at 12 months. Additional interventional strategies for high-risk groups should be explored.
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Also Published In
- World Journal of Emergency Surgery
More About This Work
- Published Here
- March 27, 2019
Trauma, Quality of life, Functional outcomes, Severe injury, Singapore, Asia