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Theses Doctoral

Design Techniques of Highly Integrated Hybrid-Switched-Capacitor-Resonant Power Converters for LED Lighting Applications

Le, Chengrui

The Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are rapidly emerging as the dominant light source given their high luminous efficacy, long lift span, and thanks to the newly enacted efficiency standards in favor of the more environmentally-friendly LED technology. The LED lighting market is expected to reach USD 105.66 billion by 2025. As such, the lighting industry requires LED drivers, which essentially are power converters, with high efficiency, wide input/output range, low cost, small form factor, and great performance in power factor, and luminance flicker. These requirements raise new challenges beyond the traditional power converter topologies. On the other hand, the development and improvement of new device technologies such as printed thin-film capacitors and integrated high voltage/power devices opens up many new opportunities for mitigating such challenges using innovative circuit design techniques and solutions.

Almost all electric products needs certain power delivery, regulation or conversion circuits to meet the optimized operation conditions. Designing a high performance power converter is a real challenge given the market’s increasing requirements on energy efficiency, size, cost, form factor, EMI performance, human health impact, and so on. The design of a LED driver system covers from high voltage AC/DC and DC/DC power converters, to high frequency low voltage digital controllers, to power factor correction (PFC) and EMI filtering techniques, and to safety solutions such as galvanic isolation. In this thesis, we study design challenges and present corresponding solutions to realize highly integrated and high performance LED drivers combining switched-capacitor and resonant converters, applying re-configurable multi-level circuit topology, utilizing sigma delta modulation, and exploring capacitive galvanic isolation.

A hybrid switched-capacitor-resonant (HSCR) LED driver based on a stackable switched-capacitor (SC) converter IC rated for 15 to 20 W applications. Bulky transformers have been replaced with a SC ladder to perform high-efficiency voltage step-down conversion; an L-C resonant output network provides almost lossless current regulation and demonstrates the potential of capacitive galvanic isolation. The integrated SC modules can be stacked in the voltage domain to handle a large range of input voltage ranges that largely exceed the voltage limitation of the medium-voltage-rated 120 V silicon technology. The LED driver demonstrates > 91% efficiency over a rectified input DC voltage range from 160 VDC to 180 VDC with two stacked ICs; using a stack of four ICs > 89.6% efficiency is demonstrated over an input range from 320 VDC to 360 VDC . The LED driver can dim its output power to around 10% of the rated power while maintaining >70% efficiency with a PWM controlled clock gating circuit.

Next, the design of AC main rectifier and inverter front end with sigma delta modulation is described. The proposed circuits features a pair of sigma delta controlled multilevel converters. The first is a multilevel rectifier responsible for PFC and dimming. The second is a bidirectional multilevel inverter used to cancel AC power ripple from the DC bus. The system also contains an output stage that powers the LEDs with DC and provides for galvanic isolation. Its functional performance indicates that integrated multilevel converters are a viable topology for lighting and other similar applications.

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Electrical Engineering
Thesis Advisors
Kinget, Peter R.
Degree
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
May 12, 2020