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Platelet count abnormalities and peri-operative outcomes in adults undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery

Weil, Isabel Ally; Kumar, Prateek; Seicean, Sinziana; Neuhauser, Duncan; Seicean, Andreea

Background
Anemia and transfusion of blood in the peri-operative period have been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality across a wide variety of non-cardiac surgeries. While tests of coagulation, including the platelet count, have frequently been used to identify patients with an increased risk of peri-operative bleeding, results have been equivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of platelet level on outcomes in patients undergoing elective surgery.

Materials and methods
Retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively-collected clinical data from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) between 2006–2016.

Results
We identified 3,884,400 adult patients who underwent elective, non-cardiac surgery from 2006–2016 at hospitals participating in NSQIP, a prospectively-collected, national clinical database with established reproducibility and validity. After controlling for all peri- and intraoperative factors by matching on propensity scores, patients with all levels of thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis had higher odds for perioperative transfusion. All levels of thrombocytopenia were associated with higher mortality, but there was no association with complications or other morbidity after matching. On the other hand, thrombocytosis was not associated with mortality; but odds for postoperative complications and 30-day return to the operating room remained slightly increased after matching.

Conclusions
These findings may guide surgeons in the appropriate use and appreciation of the utility of pre-operative screening of the platelet count prior to an elective, non-cardiac surgery.

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Academic Units
Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Published Here
February 19, 2019
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