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Theses Doctoral

Stochastic dynamics and wavelets techniques for system response analysis and diagnostics: Diverse applications in structural and biomedical engineering

dos Santos, Ketson Roberto Maximiano

In the first part of the dissertation, a novel stochastic averaging technique based on a Hilbert transform definition of the oscillator response displacement amplitude is developed. In comparison to standard stochastic averaging, the requirement of “a priori” determination of an equivalent natural frequency is bypassed, yielding flexibility in the ensuing analysis and potentially higher accuracy. Further, the herein proposed Hilbert transform based stochastic averaging is adapted for determining the time-dependent survival probability and first-passage time probability density function of stochastically excited nonlinear oscillators, even endowed with fractional derivative terms. To this aim, a Galerkin scheme is utilized to solve approximately the backward Kolmogorov partial differential equation governing the survival probability of the oscillator response. Next, the potential of the stochastic averaging technique to be used in conjunction with performance-based engineering design applications is demonstrated by proposing a stochastic version of the widely used incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). Specifically, modeling the excitation as a non-stationary stochastic process possessing an evolutionary power spectrum (EPS), an approximate closed-form expression is derived for the parameterized oscillator response amplitude probability density function (PDF). In this regard, IDA surfaces are determined providing the conditional PDF of the engineering demand parameter (EDP) for a given intensity measure (IM) value. In contrast to the computationally expensive Monte Carlo simulation, the methodology developed herein determines the IDA surfaces at minimal computational cost.

In the second part of the dissertation, a novel multiple-input/single-output (MISO) system identification technique is developed for parameter identification of nonlinear and time-variant oscillators with fractional derivative terms subject to incomplete non-stationary data. The technique utilizes a representation of the nonlinear restoring forces as a set of parallel linear sub-systems. Next, a recently developed L1-norm minimization procedure based on compressive sensing theory is applied for determining the wavelet coefficients of the available incomplete non-stationary input-output (excitation-response) data. Several numerical examples are considered for assessing the reliability of the technique, even in the presence of incomplete and corrupted data. These include a 2-DOF time-variant Duffing oscillator endowed with fractional derivative terms, as well as a 2-DOF system subject to flow-induced forces where the non-stationary sea state possesses a recently proposed evolutionary version of the JONSWAP spectrum.

In the third part of this dissertation, a joint time-frequency analysis technique based on generalized harmonic wavelets (GHWs) is developed for dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) performance quantification. DCA is the continuous counter-regulation of the cerebral blood flow by the active response of cerebral blood vessels to the spontaneous or induced blood pressure fluctuations. Specifically, various metrics of the phase shift and magnitude of appropriately defined GHW-based transfer functions are determined based on data points over the joint time-frequency domain. The potential of these metrics to be used as a diagnostics tool for indicating healthy versus impaired DCA function is assessed by considering both healthy individuals and patients with unilateral carotid artery stenosis. Next, another application in biomedical engineering is pursued related to the Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) technique. This relies on ultrasonic signals for capturing the propagation of pressure pulses along the carotid artery, and eventually for prognosis of focal vascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm). However, to obtain a high spatio-temporal resolution the data are acquired at a high rate, in the order of kilohertz, yielding large datasets. To address this challenge, an efficient data compression technique is developed based on the multiresolution wavelet decomposition scheme, which exploits the high correlation of adjacent RF-frames generated by the PWI technique. Further, a sparse matrix decomposition is proposed as an efficient way to identify the boundaries of the arterial wall in the PWI technique.

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Thesis Advisors
Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.
Degree
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
September 24, 2019