Theses Doctoral

The Development and Validation of the Workplace Racial Microaggression Scale for Asians and Asian Americans (WRMS-AAA)

Nguyen, Duoc Van

In this dissertation, I developed and validated the workplace racial microaggressions scale for Asians and Asian Americans, WRMS-AAA. This new scale measured the frequency of general and stereotype-based microaggressions that Asians experience in the workplace. General microaggressions are subtle forms of discrimination that could pertain to other minority groups, whereas stereotype-based microaggressions are subtle forms of discrimination that are based on stereotypes of Asians. In Phase 1, items were generated based on extant literature. These items were refined based on the feedback provided by subject matter experts who rated these items on relevancy, clarity, and provided other open-ended feedback. In phases 2 through 5, 351 participants completed a battery of measures including the WRMS-AAA and other measures to assess convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. These participants were then randomly split into two sample groups. In phase 2, an exploratory factor analysis using data from sample one (n = 180) revealed a four-factor structure for the WRMS-AAA. Two of these factors were general microaggressions, mistaken identity and not recognized, and the other two factors were stereotype-based microaggressions, ascription of math competency and submissiveness and lacking communication skills. In phase 3, using data from sample 2 (n=171) a confirmatory factor analysis provided further support for the four-factor structure. Both samples provided good internal consistency. In phase 4, the two samples were combined to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the WRMS-AAA. The WRMS-AAA was highly related to the Workplace Incivility Scale (Cortina et al., 2013) and the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011), providing support for convergent validity. There was little to no correlation between the WRMS-AAA and social desirability, and there was a weak positive correlation between the WRMS-AAA and neuroticism, providing support for discriminant validity. In phase 5, the WRMS-AAA was correlated with organizational outcomes. The WRMS-AAA was negatively correlated with organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction. Additionally, the WRMS-AAA was positively correlated with intention to quit and burnout. These correlations provided evidence of concurrent validity, further establishing the validity of the WRMS-AAA. Subtle forms of discrimination are different from explicit discrimination, in that they can be elusive. The WRMS-AAA is one of the only known scales to measure the general and specific subtle forms of discrimination in the workplace. Results and implications of this research are discussed.

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Social-Organizational Psychology
Thesis Advisors
Block, Caryn J.
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
August 3, 2020