Academic Commons

Chapters (Layout Features)

Towards Measures of Different and Useful Aspects of Schooling: Why Schools Need Both Teacher Assigned Grades and Standardized Assessments

Bowers, Alex J.

Summative assessments in classrooms typically result in teacher assigned grades. Grades are well known to be highly predictive of high school graduation, college enrollment and college completion, but there has been little research that explains why. In the psychometrics literature there is a persistent perception that while standardized test scores are objective measures of fundamental academic knowledge, grades are more subjective assessments that may vary school-by-school. This chapter examines the extent to which grades in high school include teacher perceptions of student effort, participation and behavior that is a different and useful measure for schools beyond what can be provided by standardized test scores, and to what extent grades vary between schools. The chapter is organized into three related sections: a review of the literature on the relationship of grades to standardized tests, an example analysis of a large high school student dataset, and, finally, a comparison of the findings from the literature and the analysis to discuss how grades are a useful yet multidimensional assessment of academic knowledge and engaged participation in the schooling process, with the latter being highly related to overall student life outcomes.

Files

  • thumnail for Bowers 2019 Towards Measures of Schooling.pdf Bowers 2019 Towards Measures of Schooling.pdf application/pdf 549 KB Download File

Also Published In

Title
Classroom Assessment as Educational Measurement
Publisher
Routledge

More About This Work

Academic Units
Education Leadership
Published Here
September 24, 2019

Notes

This manuscript is a pre-print of a book chapter published in the book titled Classroom Assessment as Educational Measurement. Citation: Bowers, A.J. (2019) Towards Measures of Different and Useful Aspects of Schooling: Why Schools Need Both Teacher Assigned Grades and Standardized Assessments. In Brookhart, S., McMillian, T. (Eds.) Classroom Assessment as Educational Measurement. National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) Book Series (p.209-223). New York: Routledge.