Theses Doctoral

Monolithic Integration Piezoelectric Resonators on CMOS for Radio-Frequency and Sensing Applications

Colon Berrios, Aida Raquel

Software cognitive radios and Internet of Things (IoT) are recent interest areas that need low loss and low power consumption hardware. More specifically, the area of software cognitive radios requires that hardware be frequency agile and highly selective. Meanwhile, IoT relies on multiple low power sensor networks. By combining Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS) technology with piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), we can fabricate Systems-on-Chip (SoC) that can be used as filters or references (oscillators) and highly selective sensors.
In this work we developed a die-level compatible process for the monolithic integration of Bulk Acoustic Resonators (BAWs) on CMOS for low power, reduced area and high-quality passives for radio frequency applications. Using CMOS as a fabrication substrate some stringent requirements were added to maintain the dies and the technology’s integrity. A few of these limitations were the need for a low thermal budget fabrication process, die handling and electro-static discharge (ESD) protection. The devices were first fabricated on glass for modeling extraction that was later used for the design of the integrated circuits (IC). Three integrated circuits were designed as substrates for the integration using IBM’s 180nm and TSMC’s 65nm technology. A monolithic BAW oscillator with a resonance frequency of 1.8GHz was demonstrated with an FOM ~186dBc/Hz, comparable to other academia work.
Using the developed process, a membrane BAW structure (FBAR) was integrated as well. Using a susceptor coating and zinc oxide’s (ZnO) high temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) the device was studied as an alternative uncooled infrared sensor. Finally, a reprogrammable IC and an RF PCB were designed for volatile organic compound (VOC) testing using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as the absorber layer.


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More About This Work

Academic Units
Electrical Engineering
Thesis Advisors
Kymissis, Ioannis
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
September 24, 2018