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Black Caribbean Immigrants in the United States and their Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: Understanding the Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity and Racial Socialization

Redway, Jorja

This study sought to address an existing gap in the multicultural research literature by exploring the impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization on perceptions of racial discrimination among Black Caribbean immigrants to the United States. Participants included 120 English-speaking Black Caribbean immigrant adults who completed a survey consisting of: a demographic information sheet, the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale - Long Form (RIAS-L), the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), the Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization Scale (TERS), and the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS).
A Pearson's correlational analysis found significant relationships between racial identity and ethnic identity, with the racial identity status attitudes Encounter, Immersion-Emersion, and Internalization being positively related to overall ethnic identity. Linear regression analyses were then conducted using racial socialization as a predictor variable and racial identity status attitudes as well as overall ethnic identity as criterion variables. Significant positive relationships were found between racial socialization and the racial identity status attitudes Encounter, Immersion-Emersion, and Internalization, as well as between racial socialization and overall ethnic identity.
Two simple linear regressions were initially conducted in order to determine whether racial socialization might be predictive of perceptions of racial discrimination for the year as well as the lifetime. Significant positive relationships were found between racial socialization and perceived racism scores for both the year and the lifetime. Further regression analyses also found the racial socialization factor Cultural Alertness to Discrimination (CAD) to be a unique positive predictor of perceptions of racial discrimination for the year as well as the lifetime. Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses later indicated that racial socialization significantly predicted perceptions of racial discrimination for the year and the lifetime above and beyond racial identity. Racial socialization was also a significant predictor of perceptions of racial discrimination for the year and the lifetime after accounting for overall ethnic identity.
Finally, MANOVA results indicated that first generation and second generation participants differed significantly on: the racial identity status attitude Encounter, overall ethnic identity, as well as the racial socialization factor Cultural Alertness to Discrimination (CAD). In sum, findings from the current study suggest that racial socialization experiences have a substantial impact on perceptions of racial discrimination and play an important role in racial and ethnic identity development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Counseling Psychology
Thesis Advisors
Miville, Marie L.
Degree
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
July 19, 2014
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