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Focal Sweep Camera for Space-Time Refocusing

Zhou, Changyin; Miau, Daniel; Nayar, Shree K.

A conventional camera has a limited depth of field (DOF), which often results in defocus blur and loss of image detail. The technique of image refocusing allows a user to interactively change the plane of focus and DOF of an image after it is captured. One way to achieve refocusing is to capture the entire light field. But this requires a significant compromise of spatial resolution. This is because of the dimensionality gap - the captured information (a light field) is 4-D, while the information required for refocusing (a focal stack) is only 3-D. In this paper, we present an imaging system that directly captures a focal stack by physically sweeping the focal plane. We first describe how to sweep the focal plane so that the aggregate DOF of the focal stack covers the entire desired depth range without gaps or overlaps. Since the focal stack is captured in a duration of time when scene objects can move, we refer to the captured focal stack as a duration focal stack. We then propose an algorithm for computing a space-time in-focus index map from the focal stack, which represents the time at which each pixel is best focused. The algorithm is designed to enable a seamless refocusing experience, even for textureless regions and at depth discontinuities. We have implemented two prototype focal-sweep cameras and captured several duration focal stacks. Results obtained using our method can be viewed at www.focalsweep.com.

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Academic Units
Computer Science
Publisher
Department of Computer Science, Columbia University
Series
Columbia University Computer Science Technical Reports, CUCS-021-12
Published Here
December 6, 2012
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