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Theses Doctoral

Leveraging Knowledge-Based Approaches to Promote Antiretroviral Toxicity Monitoring in Underserved Settings

Ogallo, William

As access and use of antiretroviral therapy continue to increase, the need to improve antiretroviral toxicity monitoring becomes more critical. This is particularly so in underserved settings, where patterns of antiretroviral toxicities possibly alter the need for and frequency of antiretroviral toxicity monitoring. However, barriers such as few skilled healthcare providers and poor infrastructure make antiretroviral toxicity monitoring in underserved settings difficult. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how standard clinical guidelines, knowledge-based clinical decision support, and task delegation could be leveraged to overcome barriers to antiretroviral toxicity monitoring in underserved settings.
The strategy adopted in this dissertation was guided by the Design Science Research Methodology that emphasizes the generation of scientific knowledge through building novel artifacts. Two qualitative descriptive studies were conducted to characterize the contextual factors associated with antiretroviral toxicity monitoring in underserved settings. Supported by the findings from these studies, a knowledge-based software application prototype that implements clinical practice guidelines for antiretroviral toxicity monitoring was developed. Next, a quantitative validation study was used to evaluate the structure and behavior of the prototype’s knowledge base. Lastly, a quantitative usability study was conducted to assess lay health worker perceptions of the satisfaction and mental effort associated with the use of checklists generated by the prototype.
This dissertation research produced empirical evidence about the broad motives and strategies for promoting medication adherence, safety, and effectiveness in underserved settings. It also identified barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral toxicity monitoring within ambulatory HIV care workflows in underserved settings. Additionally, it provided evidence about the extent to which antiretroviral toxicity domain knowledge could be implemented in a knowledge-based application for supporting point-of-care antiretroviral toxicity monitoring. Lastly, the research provided previously unavailable empirical evidence about the perceptions of lay peer health workers on the use of checklists for the documentation of antiretroviral toxicities.

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Biomedical Informatics
Thesis Advisors
Kanter, Andrew S.
Friedman, Carol
Degree
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
October 7, 2017
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