Classification of videocapsule endoscopy image patterns: comparative analysis between patients with celiac disease and normal individuals
Quantitative disease markers were developed to assess videocapsule images acquired from celiac disease patients with villous atrophy, and from control patients. Capsule endoscopy videoclip images (576 × 576 pixels) were acquired at 2/second frame rate (11 celiacs, 10 controls) at regions: 1. bulb, 2. duodenum, 3. jejunum, 4. ileum and 5. distal ileum. Each of 200 images per videoclip (= 100s) were subdivided into 10 × 10 pixel subimages for which mean grayscale brightness level and its standard deviation (texture) were calculated. Pooled subimage values were grouped into low, intermediate, and high texture bands, and mean brightness, texture, and number of subimages in each band (nine features in all) were used for quantifying regions 1-5, and to determine the three best features for threshold and incremental learning classification. Classifiers were developed using 6 celiac and 5 control patients' data as exemplars, and tested on 5 celiacs and 5 controls. Pooled from all regions, the threshold classifier had 80% sensitivity and 96% specificity and the incremental classifier had 88% sensitivity and 80% specificity for predicting celiac versus control videoclips in the test set. Trends of increasing texture from regions 1 to 5 occurred in the low and high texture bands in celiacs, and the number of subimages in the low texture band diminished (r2 > 0.5). No trends occurred in controls. Celiac videocapsule images have textural properties that vary linearly along the small intestine. Quantitative markers can assist in screening for celiac disease and localize extent and degree of pathology throughout the small intestine.
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