Cadmium reduces nitric oxide production by impairing phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase
Cadmium (Cd) perturbs vascular health and interferes with endothelial function. However, the effects of exposing endothelial cells to low doses of Cd on the production of nitric oxide (NO) are largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate these effects by using low levels of CdCl2 concentrations, ranging from 10 to 1000 nmol/L. Cd perturbations in endothelial function were studied by employing wound-healing and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. The results suggest that a CdCl2 concentration of 100 nmol/L maximally attenuated NO production, cellular migration, and energy metabolism in endothelial cells. An egg yolk angiogenesis model was employed to study the effect of Cd exposure on angiogenesis. The results demonstrate that NO supplementation restored Cd-attenuated angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immuno-detection studies showed that low levels of Cd inhibit NO production in endothelial cells by blocking eNOS phosphorylation, which is possibly linked to processes involving endothelial function and dysfunction, including angiogenesis.
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