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Theses Doctoral

Computational Contributions Towards Scalable and Efficient Genome-wide Association Methodology

Prabhu, Snehit

Genome-wide association studies are experiments designed to find the genetic bases of physical traits: for example, markers correlated with disease status by comparing the DNA of healthy individuals to the DNA of affecteds. Over the past two decades, an exponential increase in the resolution of DNA-testing technology coupled with a substantial drop in their cost have allowed us to amass huge and potentially invaluable datasets to conduct such comparative studies. For many common diseases, datasets as large as a hundred thousand individuals exist, each tested at million(s) of markers (called SNPs) across the genome. Despite this treasure trove, so far only a small fraction of the genetic markers underlying most common diseases have been identified. Simply stated - our ability to predict phenotype (disease status) from a person's genetic constitution is still very limited today, even for traits that we know to be heritable from one's parents (e.g. height, diabetes, cardiac health). As a result, genetics today often lags far behind conventional indicators like family history of disease in terms of its predictive power. To borrow a popular metaphor from astronomy, this veritable "dark matter" of perceivable but un-locatable genetic signal has come to be known as missing heritability. This thesis will present my research contributions in two hotly pursued scientific hypotheses that aim to close this gap: (1) gene-gene interactions, and (2) ultra-rare genetic variants - both of which are not yet widely tested. First, I will discuss the challenges that have made interaction testing difficult, and present a novel approximate statistic to measure interaction. This statistic can be exploited in a Monte-Carlo like randomization scheme, making an exhaustive search through trillions of potential interactions tractable using ordinary desktop computers. A software implementation of our algorithm found a reproducible interaction between SNPs in two calcium channel genes in Bipolar Disorder. Next, I will discuss the functional enrichment pipeline we subsequently developed to identify sets of interacting genes underlying this disease. Lastly, I will talk about the application of coding theory to cost-efficient measurement of ultra-rare genetic variation (sometimes, as rare as just one individual carrying the mutation in the entire population).

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Computer Science
Thesis Advisors
Pe'er, Itsik
Degree
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
March 1, 2013
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