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Mannose-rich glycosylation patterns on HIV-1 subtype C gp120 and sensitivity to the lectins, Griffithsin, Cyanovirin-N and Scytovirin

Alexandre, Kabamba B.; Gray, Elin S.; Lambson, Bronwen E.; Moore, Penny L.; Choge, Isaac A.; Mlisana, Koleka P.; Abdool Karim, Salim; McMahon, James; O'Keefe, Barry; Chikwamba, Rachel; Morris, Lynn

Griffithsin (GRFT), Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and Scytovirin (SVN) are lectins that inhibit HIV-1 infection by binding to multiple mannose-rich glycans on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env). Here we show that these lectins neutralize subtype C primary virus isolates in addition to Env-pseudotyped viruses obtained from plasma and cervical vaginal lavages. Among 15 subtype C pseudoviruses, the median IC50 values were 0.4, 1.8 and 20.1 nM for GRFT, CV-N and SVN, respectively, similar to what was found for subtype B and A. Analysis of Env sequences suggested that concomitant lack of glycans at positions 234 and 295 resulted in natural resistance to these compounds, which was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, the binding sites for these lectins overlapped that of the 2G12 monoclonal antibody epitope, which is generally absent on subtype C Env. This data support further research on these lectins as potential microbicides in the context of HIV-1 subtype C infection.

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Epidemiology
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February 8, 2012