The Strengthening Relationship between ENSO and Northeast Monsoon Rainfall over Sri Lanka and Southern India

Zubair, Lareef M.; Ropelewski, Chester F.

Recently, it was reported that the relationship of the Indian southwest monsoon rainfall with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has weakened since around 1980. Here, it is reported that in contrast, the relationship between ENSO and the northeast monsoon (NEM) in south peninsular India and Sri Lanka from October to December has not weakened. The mean circulation associated with ENSO over this region during October to December does not show the weakening evident in the summer and indeed is modestly intensified so as to augment convection. The intensification of the ENSO–NEM rainfall relationship is modest and within the historical record but stands in contrast to the weakening relationship in summer. The intensification of the circulation is consistent with the warming of surface temperatures over the tropical Indian Ocean in recent decades. There is modestly intensified convection over the Indian Ocean, strengthening of the circulation associated with ENSO (Walker circulation), and enhanced rainfall during El Niño episodes in a manner consistent with an augmented ENSO–NEM relationship.


Also Published In

Journal of Climate

More About This Work

Academic Units
International Research Institute for Climate and Society
American Meteorological Society
Published Here
September 13, 2011