I Beg to Differ: Taking Account of National Circumstances under the Paris Agreement, the ICAO Market-Based Measure, and the Montreal Protocol’s HFC Amendment

Biniaz, Susan

This paper explores the different ways in which negotiators to three recent environmental instruments accounted for different national circumstances in formulating commitments and other aspects of cooperation in the instruments. The author finds that the negotiators of these instruments have significantly expanded the arsenal of differentiation tools based on considerations pertaining to logic, fairness, limited capacity, and negotiating leverage.


  • thumnail for Biniaz_2017-01_Taking_Account_of_National_Circumstances.pdf Biniaz_2017-01_Taking_Account_of_National_Circumstances.pdf application/pdf 490 KB Download File

More About This Work

Academic Units
Sabin Center for Climate Change Law
Sabin Center for Climate Change Law White Papers
Published Here
January 25, 2017