Radiation-Induced Bystander Signaling Pathways in Human Fibroblasts: A Role for Interleukin-33 in the Signal Transmission

Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.; Zhou, Hongning; Ghandhi, Shanaz; Karasic, Thomas B.; Yaghoubian, Benjamin; Amundson, Sally A.

The main goal of this study is to elucidate the mechanisms of the signal transmission for radiation-induced bystander response. The NF-κB-dependent gene expression of IL8, IL6, PTGS2/COX2, TNF and IL33 in directly irradiated human skin fibroblasts produced the cytokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with autocrine/paracrine functions, which further activated signaling pathways and induced NF-κB-dependent gene expression in bystander cells. As a result, bystander cells also started expression and production of interleukin-8, interleukin-6, COX-2-generated PGE2 and interleukin-33 (IL-33) followed by autocrine/paracrine stimulation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. A blockage of IL-33 transmitting functions with anti-IL-33 monoclonal antibody added into the culture media decreased NF-κB activation in directly irradiated and bystander cells. On the other hand, the IGF-1-Receptor kinase regulated the PI3K–AKT pathway in both directly irradiated and bystander fibroblasts. A pronounced and prolonged increase in AKT activity after irradiation was a characteristic feature of bystander cells. AKT positively regulated IL-33 protein expression levels. Suppression of the IGF-R1–AKT–IL-33 pathway substantially increased radiation-induced or TRAIL-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts. Taken together, our results demonstrated the early activation of NF-κB-dependent gene expression first in directly irradiated and then bystander fibroblasts, the further modulation of critical proteins, including IL-33, by AKT in bystander cells and late drastic changes in cell survival and in enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis after suppression of the IGF-1R–AKT–IL-33 signaling cascade in both directly irradiated and bystander cells.


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Cellular Signalling

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Academic Units
Center for Radiological Research
Pergamon Press
Published Here
August 11, 2015