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Risk factors for loss to follow-up prior to ART initiation among patients enrolling in HIV care with CD4+ cell count ≥200 cells/μL in the multi-country MTCT-Plus Initiative

Gwynn, R. Charon; Fawzy, Ashraf; Viho, Ida; Wu, Yingfeng; Abrams, Elaine J.; Nash, Denis

Background:

In resource-limited settings, many HIV-infected patients are lost to follow-up (LTF) before starting ART; risk factors among those not eligible for ART at enrollment into care are not well described.
Methods:

We examined data from 4,278 adults (3,613 women, 665 men) enrolled in HIV care through March 2007 in the MTCT-Plus Initiative with a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 and WHO stage ≤ 2 at enrollment. Patients were considered LTF if > 12 months elapsed since their last clinic visit. Gender-specific Cox regression models were used to assess LTF risk factors.
Results:

The proportion LTF was 8.2 % at 12 months following enrollment, and was higher among women (8.4 %) than men (7.1 %). Among women, a higher risk of LTF was associated with younger age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]15–19/30+: 2.8, 95 % CI:2.1-3.6; AHR20–24/30+:1.9, 95 % CI:1.7-2.2), higher baseline CD4 count (AHR350–499/200–349:1.5; 95 % CI:1.0-2.1; AHR500+/200–349:1.5; 95 % CI:1.0-2.0), and being pregnant at the last clinic visit (AHR:1.9, 95 % CI:1.4-2.5). Factors associated with a lower risk of LTF included, employment outside the home (AHR:0.73, 95 % CI:0.59-0.90), co-enrollment of a family/household member (AHR:0.40, 95 % CI:0.26-0.61), and living in a household with ≥4 people (AHR:0.74, 95 % CI:0.64-0.85). Among men, younger age (AHR15–19/30+: 2.1, 95 % CI:1.2-3.5 and AHR30–34/35+:1.5, 95 % CI:1.0-2.4) had a higher risk of LTF. Electricity in the home (AHR:0.61, 95 % CI:0.41-0.91) and living in a household with ≥4 people (AHR:0.58, 95 % CI:0.39-0.85) had a lower risk of LTF.
Conclusions:

Socio-economic status and social support may be important determinants of retention in patients not yet eligible for ART. Among women of child-bearing age, strategies around sustaining HIV care during and after pregnancy require attention.
Keywords
HIV AIDS Anti-retroviral therapy Pre-ART, Lost to follow up Risk factors Social support

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Also Published In

Title
BMC Health Services Research
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0898-9

More About This Work

Academic Units
Pediatrics
Epidemiology
Published Here
July 31, 2015