Visit-to-Visit Variability of Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Diaz, Keith; Tanner, Rikki M.; Falzon, Louise; Levitan, Emily B.; Reynolds, Kristi; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

Visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure (BP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in some but not all studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between visit-to-visit variability of BP and CVD and all-cause mortality. Medical databases were searched through June 4, 2014, for studies meeting the following eligibility criteria: adult participants; BP measurements at ≥3 visits; follow-up for CVD, coronary heart disease, stroke, or mortality outcomes; events confirmed via database, death certificate, or event ascertainment committee; and adjustment for confounders. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled using a random-effects model. Overall, 8870 abstracts were identified of which 37 studies, representing 41 separate cohorts, met inclusion criteria. Across studies, visit-to-visit variability of systolic BP and diastolic BP showed significant associations with outcomes in 181 of 312 (58.0%) and 61 of 188 (32.4%) analyses, respectively. Few studies provided sufficient data for pooling risk estimates. For each 5 mm Hg higher SD of systolic BP, the pooled hazard ratio for stroke across 7 cohorts was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.28), for coronary heart disease across 4 cohorts was 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07–1.51), for CVD across 5 cohorts was 1.12 (95% CI, 0.98–1.28), for CVD mortality across 5 cohorts was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.09–1.35), and for all-cause mortality across 4 cohorts was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.05–1.36). In summary, modest associations between visit-to-visit variability of BP and CVD and all-cause mortality are present in published studies. However, these findings are limited by the small amount of data available for meta-analysis.


  • thumnail for Diaz_Hypertension_2014_PMC.pdf Diaz_Hypertension_2014_PMC.pdf application/pdf 1.34 MB Download File

Also Published In

More About This Work

Academic Units
Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health
American Heart Association
Published Here
March 9, 2016