Theses Doctoral

Women's Time Poverty: Differences by Family Structure, Employment, and Gender Ideology

Zilanawala, Afshin

Major changes in American families have influenced the ways in which women organize their work and family lives. The most dramatic change has been women's increased commitment to paid work which, as a result, has influenced women's time in household activities and childcare time. Population aging means working adults are more likely to care for their parents and older relatives. Changes in the workplace, including an increase in nonstandard employment and education related inequality in work hours and income, suggest a tension between work and family commitments for women facing a range of economic circumstances. This interplay of work and family obligations results in a time crunch, or insufficient discretionary time after considering time in paid work, household activities, and caregiving responsibilities. Women who are particularly prone to experience time shortages from day-to-day responsibilities are single mothers who have to juggle work and household commitments with half as many adults to provide economic and caregiving support. Single mothers also lack the economic resources to purchase goods and services that may free up their time. Literature on time deficits tries to capture time disadvantages using a construct called "time poverty"; however, there is a substantial gap in this literature because of the lack of focus on women and family structure. This dissertation seeks to fill this void in the literature by comparing time poverty metrics, examining differences in women's time poverty by family structure and work status, and investigating the extent to which gender attitudes predict women's time poverty.


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More About This Work

Academic Units
Social Work
Thesis Advisors
Teitler, Julien
Ph.D., Columbia University
Published Here
January 28, 2013