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Predictors of Nonadherence to Statins: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mann, Devin M.; Woodard, Mark; Muntner, Paul; Falzon, Louise; Kronish, Ian M.

BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to statins limits the benefits of this common drug class. Individual studies assessing predictors of nonadherence have produced inconsistent results.
OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of nonadherence to statins through systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS: Multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, were searched (from inception through February 2009) to identify studies that evaluated predictors of nonadherence to statins. Studies were selected using a priori defined criteria, and each study was reviewed by 2 authors who abstracted data on study characteristics and outcomes. Relative risks were then pooled, using an inverse-variance weighted random-effects model.
RESULTS: Twenty-two cohort studies met inclusion criteria. Age had a U-shaped association with adherence; the oldest (≥70 years) and youngest (<50 years) subjects had lower adherence than the middle-aged (50–69 years) subjects. Women and patients with lower incomes were more likely to be nonadherent than were men (odds of nonadherence 1.07; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11) and those with higher incomes (odds of nonadherence 1.18; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.28), respectively. A history of cardiovascular disease predicted better adherence to statins (odds of nonadherence 0.68; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78). Similarly, a diagnosis of hypertension or diabetes was associated with better adherence. Although there were too few studies for quantitative pooling, increased testing of lipid levels and lower out-of-pocket costs appeared to be associated with better adherence. There was substantial (I2 range 68.7–96.3%) heterogeneity between studies across factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Several sociodemographic, medical, and health-care utilization characteristics are associated with statin nonadherence. These factors may be useful guides for targeting statin adherence interventions.


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Also Published In

Annals of Pharmacotherapy

More About This Work

Academic Units
Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health
SAGE Publications
Published Here
May 14, 2016