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Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO): An Overview

Delmas, R. A.; Druilhet, A.; Cros, B.; Durand, P.; Delon, C.; Lacaux, J. P.; Brustet, J. M.; Serça, D.; Affre, C.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Baugh, W.; Harley, P.; Klinger, L.; Ginoux, P.; Brasseur, G.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Grégoire, J. M.; Janodet, E.; Tournier, A.; Perros, P.; Marion, Th.; Gaudichet, A.; Cachier, H.; Ruellan, S.; Masclet, P.; Cautenet, S.; Poulet, D.; Biona, C. Bouka; Nganga, D.; Tathy, J. P.; Minga, A.; Loemba-Ndembi, J.; Ceccato, Pietro N.

This paper presents an overview of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidents (EXPRESSO) including the objectives of the project, a detailed description of the characteristics of the experimental region and of field instrumentation deployed, and a summary of the main results of all components of the experiment. EXPRESSO is an international, multidisciplinary effort to quantify and better understand the processes controlling surface fluxes of photochemical precursors emitted by vegetation and biomass burning along a tropical forest to savanna gradient in central Africa. The experiment was conducted at the beginning of the dry season in November- December 1996. Three main research tools were deployed during this period: (1) the French research aircraft (Avion de Recherche Atmosphérique et de Télédétection, Fokker 27), instrumented for chemistry and flux measurements (CNRS- France), (2) two satellite receivers for in situ acquisition of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) imagery for fire detection (EC-JRC, Ispra, Italy), and (3) a 65-m walkup tower installed at a tropical forest site in the Republic of Congo (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado). Average dynamic and turbulence characteristics over savanna and forest ecosystems were retrieved from aircraft measurements. They illustrate the complex atmospheric circulation occurring in this region in the vicinity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Satellite receivers were operated three times a day to produce maps of fire distribution. Statistics and mapping of burned surfaces from NOAA-AVHRR and ERS-Along Track Scanning Radiometer space systems have been developed. The influence of biogenic and biomass burning sources on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere was studied through both aircraft and tower measurements. The EXPRESSO field campaign was followed by modeling efforts (regional and global scales) in which model components are evaluated using the experimental data.

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Title
Journal of Geophysical Research
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900291

More About This Work

Academic Units
International Research Institute for Climate and Society
Published Here
June 18, 2010