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Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography

Zimmerman, Paul A.; Peski, Chris van; Rice, Bryan; Byers, Jeff; Turro, Nicholas J.; Lei, Xuegong; López-Gejo, Juan; Liberman, Vladimir; Palmacci, Steve; Rothchild, Mordy; Whitker, Andrew; Blakey, Idriss; Chen, Lan; Dargaville, Bronwin; Liu, Heping

Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithography can be an enabler for the 32nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithography to be successful, however, there must be three major breakthroughs in materials development: high refractive index ("high-index") lenses, high-index immersion fluids, and high-index photo-resists. Currently a material for a high-index lens element, lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG), has been identified. However, suitable materials choices remain elusive for both the Gen-3 fluid and resist. This paper reviews the successes and failures in the search for Gen-3 high-index materials.


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Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology

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July 22, 2010
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