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Association between 24-hour blood pressure variability and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of African Americans participating in the Jackson heart study

Tanner, Rikki M.; Shimbo, Daichi; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Carson, April P.; Fox, Ervin R.; Muntner, Paul

Background
Studies suggest 24-h blood pressure (BP) variability has prognostic value for cardiovascular disease. Several factors associated with high 24-h BP variability are also common among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized 24-h BP variability would be higher for individuals with versus without CKD.

Methods
We analyzed 1,022 Jackson Heart Study participants who underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Twenty-four hour BP variability was defined by two metrics: day-night standard deviation (SDdn) and average real variability (ARV). CKD was defined as ACR ≥30 mg/g or eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Results
The mean SDdn of systolic BP (SBP) was 10.2 ± 0.2 and 9.1 ± 0.1 mmHg and the mean ARV of SBP was 9.2 ± 0.2 and 8.6 ± 0.1 mmHg for those with and without CKD, respectively (each p ≤ 0.001). After adjustment for age and sex, SDdn and ARV were 0.98 mmHg (95 % CI 0.59, 1.38) and 0.52 mmHg (95 % CI 0.18, 0.86), respectively, higher among participants with versus without CKD. These differences were not statistically significant after further multivariable adjustment including 24-h mean SBP. Older age, and higher total cholesterol and 24-h mean SBP were associated with higher SDdn and ARV of SBP among participants with CKD. Mean SDdn and ARV of diastolic BP (DBP) were higher for participants with versus without CKD but these associations were not present after multivariable adjustment.

Conclusion
Data from the current study suggest that CKD is associated with higher 24-h BP variability, but the association is primarily explained by higher mean BP among those with CKD.

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More About This Work

Academic Units
Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health
Publisher
BioMed Central
Published Here
April 18, 2016
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