Prenatal phthalate and early childhood bisphenol A exposures increase asthma risk in inner-city children
To the Editor:
We previously reported that inner-city childhood asthma was independently associated with measures of early childhood exposure to bisphenol A (BPA)1 and prenatal, but not childhood, exposures to di-n-butyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP). 2 Here, we evaluate whether these 2 classes of endocrine-disrupting chemicals interact to increase the risk of asthma.
We evaluated 292 inner-city women and their children aged 5 to 11 years from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health birth cohort of pregnant women who delivered between 1998 and 2006. Enrollment, exclusion criteria, and a description of the cohort have been reported previously.3 Subjects were selected for the present study on the basis of the availability of (1) measurements of phthalates in spot urine collected from the mother during pregnancy (33.9 ± 3.1 weeks' gestation) and BPA in child urine at ages 3 (n = 237), 5 (259), and/or 7 (n = 161) years; (2) data on child asthma and wheeze-related outcomes; and (3) availability of model covariates. Demographic characteristics of Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health subjects are provided in Table E1 in this article's Online Repository at www.jacionline.org. All participants gave written informed consent.
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Also Published In
- Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology