Fatal Pediatric Motor Vehicle Crashes on U.S. Native American Indian Lands Compared to Adjacent Non-Indian Lands: Restraint Use and Injury by Driver, Vehicle, Roadway and Crash Characteristics
There are large disparities in American Indian pediatric motor vehicle (MV) mortality with reports that several factors may contribute. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2000–2014 was used to examine restraint use for occupants aged 0–19 years involved in fatal MV crashes on Indian lands (n = 1667) and non-Indian lands in adjacent states (n = 126,080). SAS GLIMMIX logistic regression with random effects was used to generate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Restraint use increased in both areas over the study period with restraint use on Indian lands being just over half that of non-Indian lands for drivers (36.8% vs. 67.8%, p < 0.0001) and for pediatric passengers (33.1% vs. 59.3%, p < 0.0001). Driver restraint was the strongest predictor of passenger restraint on both Indian and non-Indian lands exerting a stronger effect in ages 13–19 than in 0–12 year olds. Valid licensed driver was a significant predictor of restraint use in ages 0–12 years. Passengers in non-cars (SUVs, vans and pickup trucks) were less likely to be restrained. Restraint use improved over the study period in both areas, but disparities failed to narrow as restraint use remains lower and driver, vehicle and crash risk factors higher for MV mortality on Indian lands.
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Also Published In
- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health