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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a3 defines a subset of failing pancreatic β cells in diabetic mice

Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Fan, Jason Chen; R. Kim, Young Jung; Lee, Seung-Ah; Ishida, Emi; Blaner, William S.; Accili, Domenico

Insulin-producing β cells become dedifferentiated during diabetes progression. An impaired ability to select substrates for oxidative phosphorylation, or metabolic inflexibility, initiates progression from β-cell dysfunction to β-cell dedifferentiation. The identification of pathways involved in dedifferentiation may provide clues to its reversal. Here we isolate and functionally characterize failing β cells from various experimental models of diabetes and report a striking enrichment in the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoform A3 (ALDH+) as β cells become dedifferentiated. Flow-sorted ALDH+ islet cells demonstrate impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, are depleted of Foxo1 and MafA, and include a Neurogenin3-positive subset. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrates that ALDH+ cells are characterized by: (i) impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial complex I, IV and V; (ii) activated RICTOR; and (iii) progenitor cell markers. We propose that impaired mitochondrial function marks the progression from metabolic inflexibility to dedifferentiation in the natural history of β-cell failure.

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Title
Nature Communications
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12631

More About This Work

Academic Units
Medicine
Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Studies
Published Here
October 21, 2016