DING Proteins from Phylogenetically Different Species Share High Degrees of Sequence and Structure Homology and Block Transcription of HIV-1 LTR Promoter

Sachdeva, Rakhee; Darbinian, Nune; Khalili, Kamel; Amini, Shohreh; Gonzalez, Daniel; Djeghader, Ahmed; Chabriére, Eric; Suh, Andrew; Scott, Ken; Simm, Malgorzata

Independent research groups reported that DING protein homologues isolated from bacterial, plant and human cells demonstrate the anti-HIV-1 activity. This might indicate that diverse organisms utilize a DING-mediated broad-range protective innate immunity response to pathogen invasion, and that this mechanism is effective also against HIV-1. We performed structural analyses and evaluated the anti-HIV-1 activity for four DING protein homologues isolated from different species. Our data show that bacterial PfluDING, plant p38SJ (pDING), human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) and human extracellular DING from CD4 T cells (X-DING-CD4) share high degrees of structure and sequence homology. According to earlier reports on the anti-HIV-1 activity of pDING and X-DING-CD4, other members of this protein family from bacteria and humans were able to block transcription of HIV-1 and replication of virus in cell based assays. The efficacy studies for DING-mediated HIV-1 LTR and HIV-1 replication blocking activity showed that the LTR transcription inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values ranged from 0.052–0.449 ng/ml; and the HIV-1 replication IC50 values ranged from 0.075–0.311 ng/ml. Treatment of cells with DING protein alters the interaction between p65-NF-κB and HIV-1 LTR. Our data suggest that DING proteins may be part of an innate immunity defense against pathogen invasion; the conserved structure and activity makes them appealing candidates for development of a novel therapeutics targeting HIV-1 transcription.


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Pathology and Cell Biology
Public Library of Science
Published Here
November 28, 2016