Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

Nelson, Gerald C.; Bennett, Elena; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Cassman, Kenneth; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dietz, Thomas; Dobermann, Achim; Dobson, Andrew; Janetos, Anthony; Levy, Marc A.; Marco, Diana; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; O'Neill, Brian; Norgaard, Richard; Petschel-Held, Gerhard; Ojima, Dennis; Pingali, Prabhu; Watson, Robert; Zurek, Monika

This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) calls “indirect and direct drivers” of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.


Also Published In

Ecology and Society

More About This Work

Academic Units
Center for International Earth Science Information Network
Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology
Resilience Alliance
Published Here
January 6, 2015


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