Chronic Probable PTSD in Police Responders in the World Trade Center Health Registry Ten to Eleven Years After 9/11

Cone, James E.; Li, Jiehui; Kornblith, Erica; Gocheva, Vihra; Stellman, Steven D.; Shaikh, Annum; Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M.

Background: Police enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) demonstrated increased probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the terrorist attack of 9/11/2001. Methods: Police enrollees without pre-9/11 PTSD were studied. Probable PTSD was assessed by Posttraumatic Stress Check List (PCL). Risk factors for chronic, new onset or resolved PTSD were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Half of police with probable PTSD in 2003-2007 continued to have probable PTSD in 2011–2012. Women had higher prevalence of PTSD than men (15.5% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.008). Risk factors for chronic PTSD included decreased social support, unemployment, 2+ life stressors in last 12 months, 2+ life-threatening events since 9/11, 2+ injuries during the 9/11 attacks, and unmet mental health needs. Conclusion: Police responders to the WTC attacks continue to bear a high mental health burden. Improved early access to mental health treatment for police exposed to disasters may be needed.


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American Journal of Industrial Medicine

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June 12, 2015