Clinical confirmation of the American Academy of Neurology algorithm for HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor disorder

Dana Consortium on Therapy for HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders; Marder, Karen; Albert, Steven; Dooneief, George; Stern, Yaakov; Ramachandran, Gayatri; Todak, George; Friedman-Clouse, Ronda; Polanco, Carmen; Winston, Thomas; Schofield, Peter, Mayeux, Richard; Dal Pan, Gerald; Selnes, Ola; Sacktor, Ned; Hasenauer, Deborah; Esposito, Deneen; Nance-Sproson, Letitia; McArthur, Justin; Kieburtz, Karl; Schifitto, Giovanni; McDermott, Michael; Palumbo, Donna; Orme, Connie; Zimmerman, Carol; Gelbard, Harris; Hickey, Charlyne; Casaceli, Cindy; Guthrie, Barry; Rumfola, Lisa; Epstein, Leon

Objective: Our goal was to put into operation the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) algorithm for the definition of minor cognitive/motor disorder and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia complex (ADC) and examine the neuropsychological, neurologic, psychiatric, and functional deficits in affected subjects. Design: Two hundred seventy-one HIV-positive men and women with CD4 count of <200 or demonstrated cognitive impairment were recruited from three sites (Columbia University, The Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Rochester) and underwent standardized assessments. Results: Sixty-five subjects met criteria for ADC (cognitive, functional, and neurologic or behavioral), 56 met criteria for minor cognitive/motor disorder, and 150 met criteria for neither. Seventy-eight subjects met neuropsychological and neurologic/behavioral criteria but did not demonstrate functional impairment. Those with ADC performed significantly worse on speeded motor and verbal memory tests and demonstrated more extrapyramidal signs and behavioral symptoms than did the other two groups. Both ADC and minor cognitive/motor disorder were independently predictive of poor physical function, after adjustment for age, gender, years of education, log (CD4 count), hemoglobin, number of HIV diagnoses and medications, and depression. Conclusions: The operationalization of AAN criteria demonstrates that it is rare to have both cognitive and functional impairment without associated neurologic and/or behavioral deficits. Functional impairment in isolation is also rare. Dementia is an independent predictor of physical function. NEUROLOGY 1996;47: 1247-1253



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February 11, 2022