The ENSO Fingerprint on Bangladesh Summer Monsoon Rainfall

Ehsan, Muhammad Azhar; Tippett, Michael K.; Robertson, Andrew W.; Rahman, Muhammad Ashfaqur

In South Asia (SA), the boreal summer monsoon (June to September; JJAS) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are connected, though different areas in SA respond differently to ENSO. In this paper, a new 41-year (1981 to 2021) highresolution gridded rainfall dataset (ENACTS-BMD; Enhancing National Climate Services for Bangladesh Meteorological Department) is used to investigate the linkage between the Bangladesh Summer Monsoon Rainfall (BSMR) and ENSO. Observed BSMR shows a weak positive correlation (r =  + 0.21, not statistically significant at the 5% level) with sea surface temperatures (SST) in the central-eastern (Niño3.4) Pacific region. Among the eight El Niño events, seven of them corresponded to above-normal BSMR. However, during the 11 La Niña events, the relationship was more varied, with above-normal BSMR occurring in seven instances. These findings highlight an asymmetric relationship between BSMR and ENSO. Furthermore, BSMR is negatively correlated (r =  − 0.47 statistically significant at the 5% level) with Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR: 75°–85oE, 18°–30oN). The potential physical mechanism can be outlined as follows: during El Niño, the Walker circulation tends to be weakened, resulting in a weakening of the summer monsoon circulation, which in turn reduces the intensity of easterly winds along the Bangladesh Himalayan foothills. Subsequently, a lower-level anomalous cyclonic circulation is established, facilitating the convergence of moisture within the boundary layer. This, in turn, leads to intensified rainfall over Bangladesh and the surrounding regions during El Niño. Seasonal forecast models do not adequately capture BSMR and ENSO, BSMR and circulation, and BSMR and ISMR inverse correlations. While the observed BSMR-ENSO relationship is complex and teleconnections are weak, awareness of the inverse relationship with ISMR and the incorrect model behavior could be useful in the context of seasonal BSMR predictions.


Also Published In

Earth Systems and Environment
Springer Science and Business Media LLC

More About This Work

Academic Units
International Research Institute for Climate and Society
Published Here
March 13, 2024

Related Items