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A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure

Susan M. Brookhart; Thomas R. Guskey; Alex J. Bowers; James H. McMillan; Jeffrey K. Smith; Lisa F. Smith; Michael T. Stevens; Megan E. Welsh

Title:
A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure
Author(s):
Brookhart, Susan M.
Guskey, Thomas R.
Bowers, Alex J.
McMillan, James H.
Smith, Jeffrey K.
Smith, Lisa F.
Stevens, Michael T.
Welsh, Megan E.
Date:
Type:
Articles
Department(s):
Education Leadership
Volume:
86
Persistent URL:
Book/Journal Title:
Review of Educational Research
Abstract:
Grading refers to the symbols assigned to individual pieces of student work or to composite measures of student performance on report cards. This review of over 100 years of research on grading considers five types of studies: (a) early studies of the reliability of grades, (b) quantitative studies of the composition of K-12 report card grades, (c) survey and interview studies of teachers’ perceptions of grades, (d) studies of standards-based grading, and (e) grading in higher education. Early 20th century studies generally condemned teachers’ grades as unreliable. More recent studies of the relationships of grades to tested achievement and survey studies of teachers’ grading practices and beliefs suggest that grades assess a multidimensional construct containing both cognitive and non-cognitive factors reflecting what teachers value in student work. Implications for future research and for grading practices are discussed.
Subject(s):
Educational tests and measurements
Teachers--Attitudes
Grading and marking (Students)
Psychometrics
Publisher DOI:
https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316672069
Item views
3518
Metadata:
text | xml
Suggested Citation:
Susan M. Brookhart, Thomas R. Guskey, Alex J. Bowers, James H. McMillan, Jeffrey K. Smith, Lisa F. Smith, Michael T. Stevens, Megan E. Welsh, , A Century of Grading Research: Meaning and Value in the Most Common Educational Measure, Columbia University Academic Commons, .

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