Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography
Paul A. Zimmerman; Chris van Peski; Bryan Rice; Jeff Byers; Nicholas J. Turro; Xuegong Lei; Juan López-Gejo; Vladimir Liberman; Steve Palmacci; Mordy Rothchild; Andrew Whitker; Idriss Blakey; Lan Chen; Bronwin Dargaville; Heping Liu
- Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography
Zimmerman, Paul A.
Peski, Chris van
Turro, Nicholas J.
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- Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology
- Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithography can be an enabler for the 32nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithography to be successful, however, there must be three major breakthroughs in materials development: high refractive index ("high-index") lenses, high-index immersion fluids, and high-index photo-resists. Currently a material for a high-index lens element, lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG), has been identified. However, suitable materials choices remain elusive for both the Gen-3 fluid and resist. This paper reviews the successes and failures in the search for Gen-3 high-index materials.
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