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Recent Immigration to Canada and the United States: A Mixed Tale of Relative Selection

Neeraj Kaushal; Yao Lu

Title:
Recent Immigration to Canada and the United States: A Mixed Tale of Relative Selection
Author(s):
Kaushal, Neeraj
Lu, Yao
Date:
Type:
Articles
Department(s):
Social Work
Sociology
Volume:
49
Persistent URL:
Book/Journal Title:
International Migration Review
Geographic Area:
United States
Canada
Abstract:
Using large-scale census data and adjusting for sending-country fixed effect to account for changing composition of immigrants, we study relative immigrant selection to Canada and the U.S. during 1990-2006, a period characterized by diverging immigration policies in the two countries. Results show a gradual change in selection patterns in educational attainment and host country language proficiency in favor of Canada as its post-1990 immigration policy allocated more points to the human capital of new entrants. Specifically, in 1990, new immigrants in Canada were less likely to have a B.A. degree than those in the U.S.; they were also less likely to have a high-school or lower education. By 2006, Canada surpassed the U.S. in drawing highly-educated immigrants, while continuing to attract fewer low-educated immigrants. Canada also improved its edge over the U.S. in terms of host-country language proficiency of new immigrants. Entry-level earnings, however, do not reflect the same trend: Recent immigrants to Canada have experienced a wage disadvantage compared to recent immigrants to the U.S., as well as Canadian natives. One plausible explanation is that, while the Canadian points system has successfully attracted more educated immigrants, it may not be effective in capturing productivity-related traits that are not easily measurable.
Subject(s):
Emigration and immigration--Government policy
Immigrants--Education
Sociology
Adult education
Public policy (Law)
Publisher DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1111/imre.12093
Item views
704
Metadata:
text | xml
Suggested Citation:
Neeraj Kaushal, Yao Lu, , Recent Immigration to Canada and the United States: A Mixed Tale of Relative Selection, Columbia University Academic Commons, .

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