Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography
- Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography
- Zimmerman, Paul A.
Peski, Chris van
Turro, Nicholas J.
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- Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology
- Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithography can be an enabler for the 32nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithography to be successful, however, there must be three major breakthroughs in materials development: high refractive index ("high-index") lenses, high-index immersion fluids, and high-index photo-resists. Currently a material for a high-index lens element, lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG), has been identified. However, suitable materials choices remain elusive for both the Gen-3 fluid and resist. This paper reviews the successes and failures in the search for Gen-3 high-index materials.
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- Paul A. Zimmerman, Chris van Peski, Bryan Rice, Jeff Byers, Nicholas J. Turro, Xuegong Lei, Juan López-Gejo, Vladimir Liberman, Steve Palmacci, Mordy Rothchild, Andrew Whitker, Idriss Blakey, Lan Chen, Bronwin Dargaville, Heping Liu, 2007, Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography, Columbia University Academic Commons, https://doi.org/10.7916/D8DR31RR.