Academic Commons Search Results
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog?action=index&controller=catalog&f%5Bsubject_facet%5D%5B%5D=Particle+physics&format=rss&fq%5B%5D=has_model_ssim%3A%22info%3Afedora%2Fldpd%3AContentAggregator%22&q=&rows=500&sort=record_creation_date+desc
Academic Commons Search Resultsen-usLagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:205268
Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiaohttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D81Z44X8Fri, 02 Dec 2016 22:34:06 +0000Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias & Riotto and Peloso & Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space.Particle physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Large scale structure (Astronomy), Perturbation (Astronomy), Cosmologybh2478, lh399, xx2146PhysicsArticlesLattice Calculation of Hadronic Light-by-Light Contribution to the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:202106
Jin, Luchanghttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8319W3TTue, 06 Sep 2016 12:18:39 +0000The quark-connected part of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment is computed using lattice QCD with chiral fermions.
We report several significant algorithmic improvements and demonstrate their effectiveness through specific calculations which show a reduction in statistical errors by more than an order of magnitude. The most realistic of these calculations is performed with a near-physical, 139 MeV pion mass on a (5.5 fm)³ spatial volume using the 48³ × 96 Iwasaki gauge ensemble of the RBC/UKQCD Collaboration.Particle physics, Muons, Hadrons--Scattering, Quantum chromodynamics, Quarks, Particles (Nuclear physics), Scattering (Physics), Nuclear momentslj2289PhysicsDissertationsPerturbative and Nonperturbative Aspects of Jet Quenching in Near-Critical Quark-Gluon Plasmas
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:193924
Xu, Jiechenhttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D84Q7TSDWed, 27 Jan 2016 23:19:25 +0000In this thesis, we construct two QCD based energy loss models to perform quantitative analysis of jet quenching observables in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC.
We first build up a perturbative QCD based CUJET2.0 jet flavor tomography model that couples the dynamical running coupling DGLV opacity series to bulk data constrained relativistic viscous hydrodynamic backgrounds. It solves the strong heavy quark energy loss puzzle at RHIC and explains the surprising transparency of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the LHC. The observed azimuthal anisotropy of hard leading hadrons requires a path dependent jet-medium coupling in CUJET2.0 that implies physics of nonperturbative origin.
To explore the nonperturbative chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic structure of the strongly-coupled QGP through jet probes, we build up a new CUJET3.0 framework that includes in CUJET2.0 both Polyakov loop suppressed semi-QGP chromo-electric charges and emergent chromo-magnetic monopoles in the critical transition regime. CUJET3.0 quantitatively describes the anisotropic hadron suppression at RHIC and the LHC. More significantly, it provides a robust connection between the long wavelength "perfect fluidity'' of the QGP and the short distance jet transport in the QGP. This framework paves the way for ``measuring'' both perturbative and nonperturbative properties of the QGP, and more importantly for probing color confinement through jet quenching.Physics, Nuclear physics, Particle physics, Quantum physics, Quark-gluon plasma, Scattering (Physics), Nuclear reactions, Nuclear physics, Color confinement (Nuclear physics), Quantum chromodynamicsjx2179PhysicsDissertationsMeasurements of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance in the Double Chooz Experiment
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:189517
Carr, Rachel Erinhttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8W37VNNTue, 15 Sep 2015 18:15:30 +0000This thesis presents complementary measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameter sin²2θ₁₃ made by observing the electron antineutrino flux from two nuclear reactors in Chooz, France. Antineutrinos are identified through both products of the inverse beta decay interaction, bar νₑ + p → e⁺ + n, in a high-precision liquid scintillator detector located approximately 1 km from the reactors. The most sensitive signal channel involves neutron captures by a gadolinium dopant, while a search for neutron captures on hydrogen provides a high-statistics validation. In both channels, the value of sin²2θ₁₃ is revealed by an energy- and reactor power-dependent deficit of antineutrino-like events, compared to a reactor simulation. All analyses produce results consistent with one another and with findings of other experiments. These datasets also expose features of the antineutrino spectrum not predicted in reactor flux models. Data from the newly inaugurated near detector, anticipated in the final part of this thesis, holds unique potential to clarify these features, pursue signals from sterile neutrinos, and contribute to global knowledge of three-neutrino mixing.Particle physicsrec2126PhysicsDissertationsK_L-K_S mass difference from lattice QCD
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:177236
Yu, Jiangleihttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8F47MB1Tue, 12 Aug 2014 15:34:30 +0000The K_L-K_S mass difference is a promising quantity to reveal new phenomena which lie outside the standard model. A state-of-art perturbation theory calculation has be en performed at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and a 40% error is quoted in the final result. We develop and demonstrate non-perturbative techniques needed to calculate the K_L-K_S mass difference, ΔM_K, in lattice QCD and carry out exploratory calculations. The calculations are performed on a 2+1 flavor, domain wall fermion, 16³ x 32 ensemble with a 421 Mev pion and a 24³ x 64 lattice ensemble with a 329 MeV pion. In the $16^3$ lattice calculation, we drop the double penguin diagrams and the disconnected diagrams. The short distance part of the mass difference in a 2+1 flavor calculation contains a quadratic divergence cut off by the lattice spacing. Here, this quadratic divergence is eliminated through the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani (GIM) mechanism by introducing a quenched charm quark. We obtain a mass difference ΔM_K which ranges from 6.58(30) x 10⁻¹² MeV to 11.89(81) x 10⁻¹² MeV for kaon masses varying from 563 MeV to 839 MeV. On the 24³ lattice, we include all the diagrams and perform a full calculation. Our result is for a case of unphysical kinematics with pion, kaon and charmed quark masses of 330, 575 and 949 MeV respectively. We obtain ΔM_K=3.19(41)(96) x 10⁻¹² MeV, quite similar to the experimental value. Here the first error is statistical and the second is an estimate of the systematic discretization error. An interesting aspect of this calculation is the importance of the disconnected diagrams, a dramatic failure of the OZI rule.Particle physicsjy2379PhysicsDissertationsA Search for tt Resonances in the Single Lepton Final State with the ATLAS Experiment
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:177112
Altheimer, Andrew Davidhttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8XG9PBDWed, 06 Aug 2014 18:17:19 +0000A search for undiscovered particles decaying into top-antitop quark pairs produced in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider utilizing 20.3 fb$^-1$ of data collected at $\sqrt{s}=8$ \tev\ center-of-mass energy during the 2012 data taking period is presented. The invariant mass spectrum of events containing multiple jets, exactly one lepton, and missing transverse energy and which are consistent with the decay of a top-antitop quark pair is studied and found to be consistent with that predicted by the Standard Model. Upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio of several benchmark signal models are set at a 95\% confidence level.Particle physicsada2129PhysicsDissertationsNegative Modes in Vacuum Decay
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:176867
Lee, Hak Joonhttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D84X55Z3Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:56:39 +0000A vacuum, a classically stable state, can decay to another vacuum by virtue of quantum tunneling. Although vacuum decay is an interesting topic itself in field theory, when it combines with gravity, it has wider applications and plays an essential role to understand the very early universe. The semi-classical solution of vacuum decay is well-described by the WKB approximation both in flat space and in curved space. Meanwhile, if we consider the configuration space of fields, we encounter many kinds of problems related with gravitational fields since the mode spectrum in curved space turns out to have an infinite number of negative modes in a de Sitter background. Despite of infinitely many negative modes, the regime in the weak gravity limit can be smoothly connected to flat space. To understand this, I discuss the nature of vacuum decay and various topics about negative modes in this thesis.Theoretical physics, Particle physicshl2406PhysicsDissertationsA Search For Electron Antineutrino Disappearance with the Double Chooz Far Detector
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:172267
Toups, Matthew Henryhttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8MP51B9Tue, 01 Apr 2014 15:09:26 +0000We present a search for electron antineutrino disappearance at the Chooz nuclear power plant in Chooz, France. Using the Double Chooz far detector and 101.5 days of detector run time, we measure sin^2(2θ(subscript 13)) = 0.086 ± 0.041 (stat.) ± 0.030 (syst.) from a rate and shape fit. A combined analysis of T2K and Double Chooz data finds that sin^2(2θ(subscript 13)) = 0 is excluded at the 3σ level.Particle physics, Physicsmht2114PhysicsDissertationsSearch for Non-Pointing Photons in the Diphoton and Missing Transverse Energy Final State in 7 TeV pp Collisions Using the ATLAS Detector
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:171495
Nikiforou, Nikiforoshttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8668B78Fri, 07 Mar 2014 16:58:56 +0000A search for photons originating in the decay of a neutral long-lived particle produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. The search was performed in the diphoton plus missing transverse energy final state, using the full data sample of 4.8 fb-1 of 7 TeV proton-proton collisions collected in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The analysis exploits the capabilities of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter to make precise measurements of the flight direction of photons, and utilizes the excellent time resolution of the calorimeter as an independent cross-check of the results. The search was conducted in the context of Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking models, where the lightest neutralino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle and has a finite lifetime. In the family of models investigated, supersymmetric particles are produced in pairs due to R-parity conservation, eventually decaying to a pair of neutralinos, each subsequently decaying to a photon and a gravitino. The gravitinos escape the detector, giving rise to missing energy, while the photons can appear not to originate from the primary vertex of the event, and are measured with a delay with respect to the collision time. No excess was observed above the background expected from Standard Model processes. The results were used to set exclusion limits at 95% CL in the two-dimensional parameter space defined by the supersymmetry breaking scale and the lifetime of the lightest neutralino.Particle physicsnn2221PhysicsDissertationsSearch for the Standard Model Higgs boson in Z + γ; final states with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:169799
Tian, Fenghttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8G73BP1Mon, 03 Feb 2014 11:33:59 +0000This dissertation describes a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in Z+photon channel with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using 4.6 fb⁻¹ of proton-proton collisions at center of mass energy 7 TeV in 2011 and 20.7 fb⁻¹ of proton-proton collisions at center of mass energy 8 TeV in 2012. The distribution of the mass difference between M_Zphoton and M_Z is compared to the Standard Model (SM) background expectations. No significant deviation from the SM prediction is observed and the upper limits on the signal strength μ of a Higgs boson with a mass between 120 and 150 GeV are derived. The expected exclusion limits at 95% confidence level range between 7.3 and 22.3 times the predicted Standard Model cross section. The observed exclusion limits range between 5.3 and 38.7 times the Standard Model cross section. For a Higgs boson with mass of 125.5 GeV, the expected and observed limits are 13.2 and 17.0 times the Standard Model respectively.Particle physicsft2181PhysicsDissertationsInclusive jet production in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:182024
Perepelitsa, Dennishttp://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D82V2D2WWed, 22 Jan 2014 11:16:01 +0000High-pT processes in proton- and deuteron-nucleus collisions at TeV energies are the best presently available way to study the partonic structure of the nucleus in a high-density regime. Jet production over a wide range of phase space can significantly constrain the current knowledge of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), which are substantially less well understood than the corresponding PDFs in protons and which have only recently begun to be treated in a spatially-dependent way. An accurate knowledge of nPDFs is crucial for a definitive control of perturbative processes in a cold nuclear environment, since high-pT probes are used to quantitatively investigate the hot QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, jets from low Bjorken-x partons can probe the transition from the dilute to saturated nuclear regimes.Physics, Nuclear physics, Particle physicsdvp2102PhysicsDissertationsA Measurement of the Jet Multiplicity in Di-lepton Final States of ttbar Events
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:164089
Urbaniec, Dustin Henryhttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:21263Tue, 06 Aug 2013 09:38:31 +0000A measurement of the jet multiplicity in di-leptonically decaying ttbar events (i.e. ttbar → (ee, μμ, eμ) + missing transverse momentum + jets) is presented, using 4.66 fb -1 of data collected from √ s = 7 TeV pp collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In order to mitigate the effects of systematic uncertainties associated with jet energy measurements, a measurement of the ratio of the number of di-lepton ttbar events with N + 2 jets to Z → ℓ ℓ + N jet events is also determined. The results are unfolded for detector effects and compared to the particle-level predictions of several Monte Carlo generators, showing generally good agreement.Particle physicsdhu2101PhysicsDissertationsPrecision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:162005
Cheng, Gary Chia Lihttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:20634Fri, 07 Jun 2013 16:14:10 +0000A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Δm^2=0.1-100 eV^2 region.Physics, Particle physicsgcc2113PhysicsDissertationsControl study of two-particle correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC-PHENIX
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:161549
Vazquez, Erichttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:20454Fri, 24 May 2013 09:34:46 +0000Measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have provided indirect measurements of jets in a heavy ion environment using the two- particle correlation method in the presence of a high-pT particle. These measurements have offered insight into the formation of a new state of dense nuclear matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) through the observation of jet quenching. However, the two-particle methodology has also shown to be biased towards di-jet production near the surface of the medium being created. Here, a detailed study using the PHENIX detector is provided, in an attempt to measure a more accurate jet-induced two-particle correlation measurement than previously published and to reduce the bias observed in two-particle correlation measurements. The reduction in surface bias emission is performed via the requirement of two antipodal high-pT particles (a.k.a. "2+1" correlation) in an attempt to control the production point of the di-jet. The measurements made in Au+Au collisions when compared to p+p collisions show that the method provides additional sensitivity to the jet quenching previously observed in two-particle correlation method.Nuclear physics, Physics, Particle physicsev2122PhysicsDissertationsPrecision Lattice Calculation of Kaon Decays with Möbius Domain Wall Fermions
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:161136
Yin, Hantaohttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:20325Tue, 14 May 2013 17:27:36 +0000We report our recent development in algorithms and progress in measurements in lattice QCD. The algorithmic development includes the forecasted force gradient integrator, and further theoretical development and implementation of the Möbius domain wall fermions. These new technologies make it practical to simulate large 48^3*96 and 64^3*128 lattice ensembles with (5.5fm)^3 boxes and 140MeV pion. The calculation was performed using the Möbius domain wall fermions and the Iwasaki gauge action. Simulated directly at physical quark masses, these ensembles are of great value for our ongoing and future lattice measurement projects. With the help of measurement techniques such as the eigCG algorithm and the all mode averaging method, we perform a direct, precise lattice calculation of the semileptonic kaon decay K→πlν using these newly generated high quality lattice ensembles. Our main result is the form factor f^+_{Kπ}(q^2) evaluated directly at zero momentum transfer q^2=0. Free of various systematic errors, this new result can be used to determine the CKM matrix element Vus to a very high precision when combined with experimental input. The calculation also provides results for various low energy strong interaction constants such as the pseudoscalar decay constants f_K and f_π, and the neutral kaon mixing matrix element B_K. These calculations are naturally performed by reusing the propagators calculated for the kaon semileptonic decay mentioned above. So they come with no or very low additional cost. The results allow us to also determine these important low energy constants on the lattice to unprecedented accuracy.Physics, Particle physics, Theoretical physicshy2242PhysicsDissertationsPrecision Lattice Calculation of Kaon Decays with Möbius Domain Wall Fermions
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:160818
Yin, Hantaohttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:20151Wed, 01 May 2013 18:02:44 +0000We report our recent development in algorithms and progress in measurements in lattice QCD. The algorithmic development includes the forecasted force gradient integrator, and further theoretical development and implementation of the Möbius domain wall fermions. These new technologies make it practical to simulate large 48^3*96 and 64^3*128 lattice ensembles with (5.5fm)^3 boxes and 140MeV pion. The calculation was performed using the Möbius domain wall fermions and the Iwasaki gauge action. Simulated directly at physical quark masses, these ensembles are of great value for our ongoing and future lattice measurement projects.With the help of measurement techniques such as the eigCG algorithm and the all mode averaging method, we perform a direct, precise lattice calculation of the semileptonic kaon decay K→πlν using these newly generated high quality lattice ensembles. Our main result is the form factor f^+_{Kπ}(q^2) evaluated directly at zero momentum transfer q^2=0. Free of various systematic errors, this new result can be used to determine the CKM matrix element Vus to a very high precision when combined with experimental input. The calculation also provides results for various low energy strong interaction constants such as the pseudoscalar decay constants f_K and f_π, and the neutral kaon mixing matrix element B_K. These calculations are naturally performed by reusing the propagators calculated for the kaon semileptonic decay mentioned above. So they come with no or very low additional cost. The results allow us to also determine these important low energy constants on the lattice to unprecedented accuracy.Particle physics, Physics, Theoretical physicshy2242PhysicsDissertationsSearching for Reactor Antineutrino Flavor Oscillations with the Double Chooz Far Detector
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:169558
Franke, ArthurWed, 23 Jan 2013 12:03:45 +0000This dissertation presents results from a search for reactor antineutrinoₑ flavor oscillations using the Double Chooz Far Detector. The search was performed by observing the rate and energy spectrum of antineutrinoₑ interacting via Inverse Beta Decay in a Gd-doped liquid scintillator detector, and comparing the observation to an expectation based on a prediction of the emitted reactor flux. The Columbia University neutrino group was instrumental in construction of the Double Chooz Outer Veto, as well as the analysis efforts leading to two oscillation measurement results. The most recent analysis is presented herein, focusing on 251.27 days of data (or 33.71 GW-ton-years of exposure). In these data, 8249 IBD candidates were observed, compared to a signal+background prediction of 8936.8. A fit to a two-neutrino oscillation model considering event rate, spectral shape, and time yields a best-fit value of sin² (2θ₁₃) = 0.109 ± 0.030 (stat.) ± 0.025 (syst.) at Δm 2/31 = 2.32 × 10⁻³ eV², with χ²_RS/d.o.f. = 42.1/35. A frequentist method deems the null-oscillation hypothesis excluded by the data at 99.8% C.L., or 2.9σ. These results are in agreement with the measurements of other modern reactor antineutrinoₑ experiments.Particle physicsajf2140PhysicsDissertationsSearch for Excited Randall-Sundrum Gravitons with Semi-Leptonic Diboson Final States in 4.7 fb-1 of Proton-Proton Collisions using the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:153207
Williams, Eric Lloydhttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:14878Wed, 10 Oct 2012 13:43:02 +0000This dissertation describes a search for resonant WW and WZ production in the lvjj decay channel using 4.701 fb-1 of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV LHC collision data collected by the ATLAS detector. Events with a single charged lepton, at least two jets and missing transverse energy are analyzed and no significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Upper limits on the production cross section are interpreted as lower limits on the mass of a resonance and are derived assuming two warped extra-dimension production modes: the original Randall-Sundrum (RS1) model and the more recent "bulk" Randal-Sundrum (Bulk RS) model. The mass range for both models is excluded at 95% CL with a lower mass limit for an RS1 graviton of 936 GeV and 714 GeV for the Bulk RS graviton.Particle physicselw2113Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, PhysicsDissertationsJet Quenching in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:147698
Angerami, Aaronhttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:13442Thu, 07 Jun 2012 14:58:42 +0000Jet production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is studied using Pb+Pb collisions at a center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon. The measurements reported here utilize data collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC from the 2010 Pb ion run corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 7 µ b^(-1). The results are obtained using fully reconstructed jets using the anti-k t algorithm with a per-event background subtraction procedure. A centrality-dependent modification of the dijet asymmetry distribution is observed, which indicates a higher rate of asymmetric dijet pairs in central collisions relative to periphal and pp collisions. Simultaneously the dijet angular correlations show almost no centrality dependence. These results provide the first direct observation of jet quenching. Measurements of the single inclusive jet spectrum, measured with jet radius parameters R=0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, are also presented. The spectra are unfolded to correct for the finite energy resolution introduced by both detector effects and underlying event fluctuations. Single jet production, through the central-to-peripheral ratio R CP, is found to be suppressed in central collisions by approximately a factor of two, nearly independent of the jet p T. The R CP is found to have a small but significant increase with increasing R, which may relate directly to aspects of radiative energy loss.Physics, Nuclear physics, Particle physicsara2014PhysicsDissertationsProperties of Fragmentation Photons in p+p Collisions at 200 GeV Center-of-Mass Energy
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:142601
Hanks, Janette Alicehttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:11852Wed, 30 Nov 2011 10:02:26 +0000The strong modification to the production of final state hadrons in heavy ion collisions is a key signature of the hot dense medium produced at energies achieved at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Understanding the mechanisms for the parton energy loss responsible for these modifications is challenging and difficult to constrain with straightforward hadronic measurements, making it necessary to turn to more discriminating probes. One example of such a probe is photons produced by partons as they fragment, fragmentation photons, because the production mechanisms for such photons are similar to those for hadrons, but once produced, fragmentation photons will not interact directly with the medium. The challenge of distinguishing the signal for such jet-associate photons out of the large decay background motivates first making such measurements in the simple p + p environment. Combining data collected by the PHENIX detector during 2005 and 2006, the yield for fragmentation photons was measured to be on the order of several percent of all photons measured in association with a hadron with transverse momentum between 2 and 5 GeV/c. The use of two-particle correlations coupled with a sophisticated method for identifying and removing decay photons has made it possible to further study the jet properties of these fragmentation photons, in the form of pout and root mean square jT. These results will help to constrain both the underlying theoretical description of direct photon production in p + p, and modifications expected in heavy ion collisions.Physics, Nuclear physics, Particle physicsPhysicsDissertationsDelta I Equals Three Halfs Kaon To Two Pion Decays Using Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics with Domain Wall Fermions
https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:131995
Lightman, Matthewhttp://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:10324Wed, 11 May 2011 15:41:14 +0000We calculate matrix elements for kaon to two pion decays in the Delta I = 3/2 channel using lattice gauge theory simulations. From these we can extract the decay amplitude A2, for which the real part is related to the decay rate and can be compared to the experimental result Re(A2) = 1.484 x 10^(-8) GeV, and for which the imaginary part is related to direct charge-parity violation in the neutral kaon system. We report the results of one simulation with nearly physical particle masses and kinematics, specifically mK = 509.0(9.1) MeV, mPi = 142.8(2.5) MeV, and EPiPi = 485.7(8.0) MeV. This simulation was performed on RBC/UKQCD 32^3 x 64, Ls = 32 lattices, using 2+1 dynamical flavors of domain wall fermions and a Dislocation Suppressing Determinant Ratio plus Iwasaki gauge action, and with an inverse lattice spacing a^(-1) = 1.373(24) GeV so that the spatial extent of the lattice is 4.60 fm and mPi*L = 3.3. We find that Re(A2) = 1.461(87)stat(200)sys x 10^(-8) GeV, in good agreement with the experimental value. We also find Im(A2) = -8.67(45)stat(1.95)sys x 10^(-13) GeV, and Im(A2)/Re(A2) = -5.93(27)stat(1.42)sys x 10^(-5), however the value of Im(A2) depends on a rough hypothesis for some of the renormalization constants which have not yet been calculated, and thus we quote a large systematic error. We also report the results of a simulation involving a variety of kaon and pion masses and momenta, which was conducted in order to study the dependence of the decay amplitude on particle masses and kinematics, and to study the effect of not having exactly physical masses and kinematics in the first simulation. The use of the quenched approximation and smaller spatial volume in this second simulation allowed for multiple masses to be simulated in a reasonable amount of time, but introduced an uncontrolled approximation and forced us to use pion masses a bit larger than the phys- ical mass. The study was conducted on 24^3 x 64, Ls = 16 lattices, with the quenched Doubly Blocked Wilson 2 gauge action, and an inverse lattice spacing of a^(-1) = 1.31(2) GeV. We find that an extrapolation to physical masses and kinematics yields values Re(A2) = 2.25(18)stat x 10^(-8) GeV and Im(A2) = -13.44(84)stat x 10^(-13) GeV. These results are significantly larger than those of the full dynamical simulation and of experiment. We attribute this mainly to the an inaccurate determination of the lattice spacing a using the rho mass, since it comes in as a^(-3) in the calculation of A2. Finally, a third simulation is performed with 2+1 dynamical flavors of domain wall fermions on a finer 32^3 x 64, Ls = 16 lattice, but only with pions that have nearly zero momentum. It, and the quenched simulation, are used mainly to estimate the systematic error in the first simulation, which is taken as the final result.Particle physicsmbl2108PhysicsDissertations